**Index for "Design for Manufacturability, Optimizing Cost, Quality,
and Time-to-Market," Second Edition, 2001**

[back]

Ability, as word suffix

Assembleability, 15, 164, 173

Customizability, 19, 65

Manufacturability, 1, 6, 13, 163,
179, 271

Recycleability, 21

Reliability, 206

Serviceability, 13, 215, 224

Testability, 13, 175, 267

Access

for parts and tools, 165

for test instruments, 176

sub-assemblies, 219

Accounting, cost, traditional approach

deficiencies, 142

distortions in product costing, 143

irrelevance for decision making, 144

Activity Based Costing (ABC), 141

cost drivers, 149

existing cost systems, 154

implementation effort, 155

implementation, easy
method, 157

implementing ABC, 154

implementing approaches, 147

low-hanging-fruit-approach, 149

resistance to, 154

results of implementation, 158

tracking R&D expenses, 156

Adding options, 165

Adding upgrades, 166

Adjustments

elimination of, 174

making in product, 218

protection of, 218

Agile product development, 61

Agility, 59

Analysis, statistically significant, 9, 10

Anderson's law, 104

Approval, 281

Arbitrary decisions, 5, 25, 26

and part proliferation, 77

examples in NPD, 26

Architecture

importance of, 51

optimizing, 54

Architecture optimization, 7

ASICs, 53

Assembly

ease of, 15

Assembly motion

screw fastening, 170

Assembly motion guidelines, 173

adjustment easy, 174

adjustment independent, 174

adjustments, avoid, 174

alignment, design for, 173

cables, minimize, 174

cables, minimize types, 175

calibration, avoid, 174

certifications, independent, 174

tests, independent, 174

tweaking, avoid, 174

Assembly motions guidelines, 173

Assembly order, 165

minimizing errors, 232

Assembly strategy guidelines, 164

Asymmetry guideline, 183

Auto-feed screwdrivers

as a standard process, 94

choosing fasteners for, 169

guideline, 169

Automatic handling, tolerances, 191

Automatic soldering, 257

Automation

for PC boards, 252

gripping guidelines, 193

handling by, 190

load capacity, 193

parts presentation, 192

use greater with DFM, 11

Automation guidelines, PC boards, 261

Availability, 223

of factory, 11

of spare parts, 217

Average quality level, 203

Awards, 286

Batch-size-of-one, 61

in mass customization, 66

Benefits

DFM program, 272

modular design, 70

of DFM, 10

Block tolerances, 189

Boeing, customers on design team, 39

Brainstorming, 30

rules of, 30

Bread-truck deliveries, 168

Breadth of product line, 18

Breadtruck automatic resupply, 102

Breadtruck resupply, cost savings, 132

BTO (build-to-order), 61

Build-to-order, 61

cost reduction from, 128

supported by standardization, 102

Building block modules, 69

Building parts on demand, 61

Bulk parts tangling, 191

Cables, minimizing types, 175

Capacity

shifting to/from flexible lines, 131

Capacity, production

doubling by doubling utilization, 130

Capital, working, 128

Captivated lockwashers, 171

Captivated washers, 170

Captive fasteners, 170

Catalog

information in, 110

organization, 109

Catalog hardware interfaces, 69

Catalog parts, 104

availability, 111

cost savings, 105

finding, 108

specials, 107

standardization effect, 104

time savings, 106

Catalogs

awareness, 108

design guidelines in, 110

information in, 110

sources, 108

Cell manufacturing, 60

Champion, 273

Change orders, 27

cost over time, 28, 124

minimizing cost, 124

total cost basis, 146

Changes

cost of, 27

forced by other changes, 8

Checklist

numbering, 281

Checklist formats, 279

Checklists, 278

Chrysler, suppliers like partners, 127

CNC, designing for, 64

CNC milling, designing for, 93

Co-location, 28

Combining parts

criteria, 181

for fastener elimination, 172

guideline, 181

Commonality, 82

fastener guidelines, 167

guidelines, 179

PC boards, 259

tools for repair, 216

Compaq, expanded space thru inventory reduction, 130

Competitive advantage,

of time-to-market, 19

Complementarity

optimizing workloads, 131

Compliance, 287

Computer Aided Design

in modular design, 69

Computer simulation, 9

Concept decisions, 54

Concept optimization, 7

Concept simplicity

key to reliability, 206

Concepts, DFM, 1

Concurrent engineering, 37

for build-to-order, 64

for flexibility, 64

Configuration, cost, when reactive, 128

Connections to sub-assemblies, 220

Consolidation of parts, 64

Constraints

and time, 27

misconceptions about, 4

realities about, 5

Continuous improvement, 126, 199

for complex products, 206

standardization's role, 101

Cooper, Robin, 142

Cost

capital equipment, 11

design consideration, 14

designed in, 117

minimizing overhead, 120

myths about, 5

of part proliferation, 76

per part number, 76

product introduction, 73

traditional measures, 118

when committed, 7

Cost distortion, 142, 143

Cost distortions, estimating degree, 146

Cost drivers, 149

Cost management, 145

Cost of changes, 27

Cost of quality

defects by the batch, 125

minimizing, 125

more than assembly, 125

Cost of variety

for parts, 75

minimizing, 129

Cost reduction, 115

avoiding diagnostic tests, 123

avoiding reinventing the wheel, 122

batches, eliminating cost of, 125

bills of materials, 136

breadtruck resupply, 132

build-to-order contribution, 128

build-to-order savings, 134

change orders, 124

configuration costs, 128

cost accounting difficulties, 145

cost of changes, 116

customization costs, 128

debug cost, 123

difficulty with poor costing, 145

distribution costs, 133

easy implementation, 157

ECOs, 124

engineering change orders, 124

expediting costs, 157

expensive inventory, 136

false perceptions, 94

field service, 132

finished goods inventory, 134

flexibility contribution, 128

floor space, 130

from catalog parts, 122

from faster NPD, 123

from flexibility, 73

from more efficient NPD, 123

from product extensions, 123

from teamwork, 121

hard to after design, 116

how not to achieve, 116

how not to ala Lopez, 126

inventory carrying cost, 135

inventory elimination, 129

inventory write-offs, 136

kitting elimination, 131

lean production contribution, 128

life cycle costs, 134

marketing, 133

mass customization, 128

materials management, 132

myths about, 116

non-value-added costs, 125

not from low-bidding, 117

not from off-shore production, 117

part overhead, 132

phasing in better products, 126

product development, 120

purchasing costs, 132

quality costs, 125

resources better applied, 117

sales costs, 133

setup labor, 130

spare parts logistics, 132

supplier cost, 132

supply chain costs, 134

thru design, 117

thru standardization, 95

transportation, internal, 130

utilization improvements, 130

variety costs, minimizing, 129

WIP inventory elimination, 129

with DFM, 10

with purchased parts, 105

Cost, inventory carrying, 135

Costs, overhead

allocations, 143

distribution, simplistic, 143

quantifying, 142

Counters, 224

Creative product development, 28

Creativity, 28

Crosby, Philip

cost of quality %, 125

"Quality is Free," 127

Cumulative effects

on product quality, 202

Custom parts from vendors, 110

Customer preferences in QFD, 48

Customers on design team, 39

Customers' needs, 18

Customization, 19

cost of when reactive, 128

Cutting tools, minimize variety, 185

Deadlines

how to set, 43

often set arbitrarily, 26

Decision making

enhanced by relevant numbers, 144

relevance: good costing, 144

Decisions

based on total cost, 122

Defects "by the batch", 125

Defects per million, 202

Definition, DFM, 1

Delivery, design consideration, 14

Dell Computer's build-to-order

transitioning first to new, 36

Deming, Edward

4th point, part quality, 197

9th point, teamwork, 197

Design

for maintenance, 224

to minimize errors, 228

Design considerations, 13

balance, 22

consequences of ignoring, 22

environmental, 20

factory, 14

marketing, 18

responsibility, 22

social, 17

traditional, 14

Design for Assembly, 15

software, 15

Design for fixturing, 184

Design for Manufacturability

benefits, 10

definition, 1

summary, 1

Design for repair, 215

Design freedom, 25

Design guidelines

in catalogs, 110

Design of experiments, 189

and robust design, 198

Design of Experiments, 10

Design philosophy, 13

Design review deadlines, 43

Design reviews, an alternative, 43

Design team leader, 41

Design teams, 37

Design time, resistance to DFM, 27

Designing flexible products, 66

Designing for manufacturability, 6

Designing in quality, 196

Designs, implementing, 31

DFM

benefits, 10

definition, 1

resistance, 4

DFM capabilities, 31

DFM concepts, 1

DFM products

appropriate overhead charges, 144

Diagnose

ability to, 215

Diagnostic tests

how to avoid, 39

how to avoid need, 123

when needed, 16

Dimensioning

optimizing with GD&T, 201

Disconnect features, 216

Discounted overhead, 286

Disposable parts, 217

Distribution

build-to-order cost savings, 133

design consideration, 16

minimizing costs, 133

revolutionized by build-to-order, 16

Do it right the first time, 8

strategy, 8

tools, 9

Dock-to-stock delivery, 60

Downtime, 223

Downward spirals

caused by poor costing, 145

Drucker, Peter

minimizing interstitial costs, 127

on supply chain costs, 134

Duplicate parts

eliminating, 80

problems for lean production, 80

E-commerce

problems with mass production, 65

Early effects of design, 7

Ease of assembly, consideration, 15

ECOs

cost over time, 124

minimizing cost, 124

total cost basis, 146

Elastic pins, 173

Empowerment, 43

compensation for poor costing, 149

Engineering change orders, 27

cost of, 27

cost over time, 28, 124

minimizing cost, 124

total cost basis, 146

Environmental design considerations, 20

Equipment cost, lower with DFM, 11

Ergonomics, design consideration, 17

Error avoidance

PC boards, 266

Error prevention

alternatives, 233

Error reduction, 228

Errors

commission, 229

omission, 231

sequence, 232

timing, 233

Errors of commission, 229

Errors of omission, 231

Expansion, design consideration, 19

Expediting costs

one-third in JIT, 157

Experience in factory, 32

Factory availability, 11

Factory experience, 32

Factory improvements, 2

Factory works on team, 40

Fastener commonality

guidelines, 167

PC boards, 260

Fasteners

captive, 170

geometry of, 169

reduction of, 167

snap-on, 172

use of fewer but larger, 167

use of minimum, 167

Fastening guidelines, 167

auto-feed screwdrivers, 169

captive fasteners, 170

combining parts, 172

lock-washers, captivate, 171

nuts, minimize, 170

press fits, 173

self-tapping, 171

snap together, 172

standardization, 167

tool standardization, 168

torque setting standardization, 168

washers, captivate, 170

Fastening strategy, 168

Feature standardization, 92

Federal Express

inventory-less deliveries, 135

Feedback, 275

Field data, 276

Field service

problems from part proliferation, 76

Finance role on team, 40

Finished goods inventory

cost minimization, 134

Fits, tolerances for, 173

Fixtures, versatile, 64

Fixturing, designing for, 184

for flexible operations, 184

Flexibility, 59

value of, 71

Flexible manufacture, for PCB, 255

Flexible manufacturing, 102

and group technology, 72

Flexible parts, 192

Flexible product development, 61

Flexible products, how to design, 66

Floor space

cost of, 130

minimizing, 130

Floor space reduction, 72

Flow manufacturing, 60

Focus, 24

Follow-up, 287

Ford, Mustang development

empowerment, role of, 43

Ford, Taurus

designers talking to customer, 31

Forecasts, eliminating the need for, 61

Freedom of design, 25

Function, design consideration, 14

Fuses, 219

Future designs, design consideration, 20

Future projects, 44

GD&T, 201

General Dynamics

cost variation of similar parts, 69

General Electric

supplier's view of standardization, 95

General Motors

results of Lopez "cost cutting", 126

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing, 201

Goal, The; Goldratt, Eli, 128

Goals

DFM program, 271

optimizing real goals, 128

what achieves, 24

Goldratt, Eli; The Goal, 128

Gripping parts, 193

Group technology

for PC boards, 255

PC boards, 263

Grouping rules & guidelines, 280

Growth, Surviving, 3

Guideline, definition, 277

Guideline numbering, 163

Guidelines

assembly strategy, 164

parts, 179

past problems, understanding, 164

PC board components, 258

PC boards, 258

product design, 164

specific processes, 182

standardization, 179

Guidelines for part design, 179

Handling by automation, guidelines, 190

parts within gripper span, 193

Hewlett-Packard

automated screwdrivers, 95

cost driver implementations, 152

fastener display boards, 98

software debug strategy, 123

supplier standardization, 93

supply chain initiatives, 134

tracking R&D expenses, 156

Hoffman Engineering

build-to-order plant, 65

House of quality, QFD, 49

Human factors, 227

design consideration, 17

IBM

FPA threshold: no diagnostics, 123

threshold for diagnostics, 39

threshold for no diagnostics, 177

Idea generation, 30

Implementation, DFM program, 283

Implementing designs, 31

Incentives that reward quality, 201

Industrial Design, consideration, 18

Industrial designer role, 39

Industry Week best plant survey, 38

Infant mortality phase, 211

Institutes of Management Accountants

studies on cost distortions, 143

Integration of silicon, 53

Intel

standardization results, 88

variable material overhead, 151

varying mat'l overhead rates, 97

Interfaces between parts

elimination of, 181

Interference fits, tolerance, 173

Inventory

asset of liability?, 128

eliminating, effect on cost, 129

reducing WIP, 72

write-offs, eliminating, 136

Inventory carrying cost, 135

Inventory dilemma

of mass production, 66

Inventory elimination, 61

Inventory reduction, 60

at dealers, 135

finished goods, 70, 102, 135

from build-to-order, 135

from modular design, 70

from parts standardization, 100

supply chain, 135

work in process (WIP), 129

Inventory, finished goods

cost minimization, 134

Issues

resolution of, 45

to be resolved early, 46

Job rotation, 32

Johnson, H. Thomas, 142

Jones, Daniel T., 59

Judgement, 280

Just-in-time

and flexibility, 72

and group technology, 72

and standardization, 75

benefitting from standardization, 100

delivery of fasteners, 168

for PC boards, 255

Justification

based on total cost, 147

compensate, missing numbers, 148

in spite of usual numbers, 148

qualitative, 148

Kaizen, 126

Kanban for linear materials, 91

Kaplan, Robert, 142

justification approach, 148

Keiretsu and cost, 127

Kitting

eliminating costs of, 131

how to eliminate, 66

Leader of design team, 41

Lean production, 59

benefits, 60

cost reduction from, 128

Lean retailing, 17

Lean Thinking book, 59

Learning relationships, 133

Learning trades, 33

Levi's custom jeans

inventory savings, 133

Lexmark model

linear vs. concurrent, 51

Life cycle costs, minimizing, 134

Linear materials standardization, 180

Lockwashers, use of, 171

Lopez, J. Ignacio

real results of "cost cutting", 126

Lot size

reduction, 72

Lot size reduction, 102

Low cost, myths about, 116

Low cost product development, 115

Low cost, how not to achieve, 116

Low-bidding

encouraged by poor costing, 141

problems with at GM, 127

Low-hanging-fruit for ABC, 149

Machining, same setup, 201

Machining in the same setup, 185

Maintenance, 222

designing for, 224

measurements, 223

minimizing need for, 224

preventative, 222

unscheduled, 222

using modules, 225

Make of buy decisions, 107

Make or buy decision, 107

Make/buy decisions

biased by accounting, 126

Management support, 273, 285

Managing "by the numbers"

irrelevance of, 144

Manufacturability

Problems without, 2

Manufacturing, understanding, 32

Manufacturing on design team, 38

Market changes, quickly adapting, 131

Marketing

cost, acquiring new customers, 133

minimizing costs, 133

Marketing role on team, 38

Markets, expanding scope of, 65

Markets, export, customizing for, 65

Mass customization, 65

cost reduction from, 128

design consideration, 19

spectrum of, 65

Material overhead rates

varying for standard parts, 97

Materials standardization, 89

Matrix management, 42

Mazda, shifting production, 131

Mean response time, 223

Mean time to repair, 223

Measurements, maintenance, 223

Memory, eliminating dependence, 231

Minimizing cost, 115

thru design, 117

ways to, 117

Minimizing risk, 22

Mistake-proofing, 228

MKS instruments, kanban example, 91

Modular design, 69

and flexibility, 67

benefits of, 70

in engineering, 69

in manufacturing, 69

in repair, 218

strategy, 69

Modules, 69

Motivation, 284

Motivation for DFM, 3

MRP systems, 83

Multiple project coordination, 40

Murphy's Law about NPD, 4

Myths about product development, 5

National Semiconductor

FedEx inventory-less deliveries, 135

Niche market customization, 65

Not-invented-here

causing part proliferation, 77

Not-invented-here syndrome, 68

Nuts, use of, 170

Off-shore manufacture

encouraged by poor costing, 141

Omission errors, 231

One-piece flow, 60

Options, making easy to add, 165

Order of assembly, 165

Organizational structures, 42

Organizing DFM program, 272

Orientation

avoiding wrong, 230

maintaining, 191

of parts, 190

Outsourcing, and cell manufacture, 61

Over the wall, 42

Over the wall syndrome, 2

Overhead, on parts, 105

Overhead allocation

arbitrary nature of, 26

Overhead cost, allocations, 143

Overhead costs

effect on part cost, 104

minimizing , 120

quantifying, 142

Overhead rate

proportional to real overhead, 141

Overhead, material

varying for standard parts, 97

Overload protection, 219

Ownership, 273

Packaging, design consideration, 17

Parallel projects, 44

Part availability

at points of use in plant, 75

Part consolidation, 64

Parts, make differences obvious, 229

Part guidelines, 179

asymmetry exaggerated, 183

combining parts, 181

cutting tools minimized, 185

differences obvious, 184

fixturing, design for, 184

linear materials, standardize, 180

machined in same setup, 185

optimal tolerances, 184

part types, minimize, 179

parts, total, minimize, 180

pre-finished materials, 180

process guidelines, parts, 182

right/left parts, avoiding, 182

rule of ten, 185

sources reliable, 185

standardize design features, 179

standardize parts, use, 179

symmetry, 183

tooling complexity, minimize, 184

Part listing, 81

Part procurement, without forecasts, 62

Part proliferation, 75

and contract manufacturing, 78

and mergers/acquisitions, 78

and part minimum weight fallacy, 78

cost of, 76

duplicate parts, 79

eliminating duplicates, 80

examples, 75

qualifying part families, 78

results of, 79

understanding the need, 77

why it happens, 77

Part reuse studies, 68

Part type reduction, 81

Part types, minimizing number of, 179

Parts

designed by suppliers, 111

disposable, 217

floor stock, 98

independently replaceable, 165

pre-qualification, 98

Parts orientation, 190

Parts presentation to automation, 192

Parts standardization

guideline, 179

Preferred part lists, 82

better-than substitutions, 83

how to generate, 83

new generation parts, 84

Pareto sorts, 83

Philosophy, tolerances, 188

Philosophy of design, 13

Pilot design team, 287

Pins, elastic, 173

Plant layout, 72

Platforms, product, 64

Plug-in modules

in maintenance, 225

Poka-yoke, 228

Pollution, design consideration, 20

Pre-finished materials, 180

Preferred part lists

consolidate duplicate parts, 84

consolidate tolerances, 85

education, 86

issuing the lists, 86

ordering the list, 85

results, 88

small % of old lists, 88

strictness of enforcement, 87

Preferred parts, 82

Press fits, tolerances, 173

Preventative maintenance, 222

Pricing

distorted by cost distortions, 143

overpricing, 143

underpricing, 143

Principles, PC board DFM, 252

Printed circuit boards, 251

automation guidelines, 261

manufacture, 251

quality guidelines, 265

standard equipment, 256

Process guidelines, 182

Process order, minimizing errors, 232

Process standardization, 94

Process yield, PC boards, 254

Processes, understanding, 32

Processing, of sub-assemblies, 166

Processing pollution, consideration, 20

Procurement, without forecasts, 62

Product cost distortion, 142

Product appearance, consideration, 18

Product architecture

importance of, 51

optimizing, 54

Product customization, 19

Product definition, 47

to minimize cost, 122

Product design, strategy, 163

Product development

hindered by cost systems, 141

less risk if faster, 124

myths, 5

realities, 6

undermined by poor costing, 144

Product Development Teams, 6

Product failures, 11

causes, 2

without DFM, 11

Product families, 66

Product flow improvements, 72

Product guidelines

assembly direction, 164

assembly order, 165

assembly, designed for, 164

fabrication, designed for, 164

options, added easily, 165

parts independently replaceable, 165

past problems, understanding, 164

processing, designed for, 164

subassemblies, 166

tool access, 165

upgrading, 166

Product introduction, 106

quicker, 72

Product line breadth, 18

from group technology, 70

Product line rationalization, 16

Product platforms, 64

Product pollution, consideration, 20

Product portfolio planning, 64, 120

balanced criteria, 121

based on real profitability, 120

product families, 120

rational decisions, 121

Product recycling, consideration, 21

Product style, design consideration, 18

Production capacity

doubling by doubling utilization, 130

Production transition, quicker, 11

Productivity

how to double, 60

lowered by part proliferation, 76

Profitability

distorted by cost distortions, 143

high for customization, 65

identifying money losers, 147

relative, 26

understanding current, 120

Profitability, relative, 146

as product planning tool, 146

Profits

enhancing with early release, 19

enhancing with life extensions, 20

Proliferation of parts, 75

Protection of parts, 219

Prototyping parts, 106

Publication, 282

Pull signals, 61

Purchased parts, 104

cost savings, 105

finding, 108

specials, 107

standardization effect, 104

time savings, 106

Purchasing

leverage, 100

sub-assemblies, 167

Purchasing delays, how to eliminate, 61

Purchasing leverage, 100

Purchasing on design team, 38

QFD, 47

how it works, 49

Quality, 195

average level of, 203

better for standard parts, 95

continuous improvement, 199

cost of, minimizing, 125

cumulative effects, 202

design consideration, 15

design right, 1st time, 198

designing for, 195

designing in, 196

documentation, 201

external, 125

goal, primary, 196

guidelines, 196

improved with DFM, 10

incentives, 201

internal, 125

most effective way to achieve, 6

non-value-added, 125

parts, chosen for quality, 197

past quality problems, 196

predictive model, 205

problems without DFM, 2

processing, optimize, 197

product definition, 196

simplifying design, 197

simplifying processing, 197

strategies, 205

teamwork's role, 197

tolerances on target, 200

tolerances within spec, 199

TQM culture, 196

worst case, 198, 199

Quality example, cumulative effect, 203

Quality feedback, 275

Quality Function Deployment, 47

how it works, 49

Quality guidelines, PC boards, 265

Quality improvement

from group technology, 72

from inventory reduction, 72

from rapid feedback, 72

Quality strategies for products, 205

Quick disconnects, 216

Rapid prototyping, 10

Rationalization to cut part variety, 62

Rationalization of product lines, 16

Raw materials standardization, 89

Raychem Corporation

mastering implementing, 31

Re-inventing the wheel

how to avoid, 67

Re-usable engineering, 67

Realities about product development, 6

Recycling, 21

Redesign, less chance with DFM, 11

Redesigns, 8

Regulatory compliance, 40

Reinforcing loops

caused by poor costing, 145

Relevance Lost, The Rise and Fall of Management Accounting, 142

Reliability, 206

burn-in, 210

computer models, 207

concept simplification, 206

connections, electrical, 209

design consideration, 15

design features, proven, 208

designing in, 206

electronics, 209

failure mode analysis, 207

flex cable, 209

goal of design, 207

guidelines, 206

infant mortality phase, 211

inherent, 206

installation, 208

measurement of, 210

measurements, 210

minimizing errors, 208

mistake-proofing, 208

modules, pre-certified, 208

packaging, 208

part selection, 207

parts, proven, 208

past problems, understanding, 207

phases, 211

phases of, 211

Poka-Yoke, 208

processes, proven, 208

repair limits, 210

shipping, 208

simplicity, 206

simulations, 207

sockets, 209

soldering by hand, 209

wearout phase, 211

Removal aids, 219

Repair

damage, 218

ease of, 16

removal aids, 219

Repair tasks, 216

Repairability

designing for, 215

easy to perform, 216

Resistance to DFM, 25

Resistance to DFM, 4

Resources, drained without DFM, 2

Responsibility, 273

Responsiveness, 72

Results, group technology, 68

Retaining rings, 172

Return on Investment (ROI), 147

problems without total cost, 147

Reusable engineering, 69

Revisions

conveyed clearly, 230

ensuring implementation, 231

rules & guidelines, 288

Right/left hand parts

elimination of, 182

Risk

late introductions, 23

liability, 23

manufacturability, 23

market acceptance, 23

material availability, 23

minimizing all, 22

quality & reliability, 23

technical feasibility, 22

time-to-market, 23

Robust design, 189, 198

ROI (return on Investment), 147

problems without total cost, 147

Role in DFM, 34

Rule

definition, 277

Safety

design consideration, 18

of repair, 220

Sales, minimizing costs, 133

Scheduling, 72

and mass customization, 66

Screws, assembly motion, 170

Self-correction, 224

Self-tapping screws, use of, 171

Self-test, 224

Senge, Peter

reinforcing loops, 145

Sequence errors, 232

Series reliability model, 202

Service

ease of, 16

of snap together parts, 172

using modular design, 70

Service on design team, 38

Setup elimination

by design, 64

by design of products, 66

need for, 60

Shingling of parts, 191

Shipping

design consideration, 16

direct to customers, 61

direct to stores, 61

Shrink fits, tolerances, 173

Simplicity, key to reliability, 206

Simplify first, 62

Simulation, 9

Six Sigma, automatic soldering, 209

SKUs, and mass customization, 65

Slotted nuts, use of, 171

Snap together parts, 172

Snap-on fasteners, 172

Sockets, reliability impact, 209

Software, design for assembly, 15

Soldering, reliability impact, 209

Solid modeling, 10

Sources, DFM program, 275

spare parts, 107

availability, 217

replacement, 217

Spare parts availability, 107

Spontaneous build-to-order, 61

Spontaneous part procurement, 62

Spontaneous supply chain, 61

Standard part lists

consolidate duplicate parts, 84

consolidate tolerances, 85

education, 86

how to generate, 83

issuing the lists, 86

new generation parts, 84

ordering the list, 85

Pareto sorts, 83

results, 88

small % of old lists, 88

strictness of enforcement, 87

Standard parts

display boards, 98

total cost metrics, 99

use of, 179

Standardization, 75

bar stock, 89

benefits, 100

design features, 179

encouraging, 97

guidelines, 179

importance of, 99

linear materials, 180

of bend radii, 92

of casting metal, 89

of cutting tools, 93

of expensive parts, 94

of features, 92

of holes, 92

of linear materials, 90

of molding plastic, 89

of processes, 94

of programmable chips, 90

of protective coatings, 90

of punches, 92

of sheetmetal, 89

of tools, 92

of tubing, 89

overcoming resistance, 94

part count reduction, 81

prerequisites for, 99

printing wire while dispensing, 91

zero-based approach, 81

Standardization benefits

cost reduction, 100

delivery quicker, 103

flexibility, 101

floor space reduction, 100

inventory reduction, 100, 102

just-in-time, 100

overhead cost reduction, 100

parts availability, 103

purchasing leverage, 100

quality, 101

rationalizing suppliers products, 103

responsiveness, 102

setup elimination, 101

suppliers stronger, 103

Standardization of raw materials, 89

Statistically significant analysis, 9

Statistics, product quality, 202

Stock Keeping Units (SKUs)

and mass customization, 65

Store replenishment

and mass customization, 66

Strategies, quality, 205

Strategy

build-to-order, 61

do-it-right-the-first-time, 8

fastening, 168

PC board DFM, 257

product design, 163

test guidelines, 175

tolerances, 188

Strictness of enforcement, 277

Structuring DFM information, 277

Sub-assemblies

connections, 220

testing of, 175

Sub-assembly

access, 219

location, 221

orientation, 220

purchase and testing, 167

use in assembly, 166

Subsidization

consequences, severe, 145

cross subsidies, 143

custom by standard, 143

downward spirals, 145

enormous cross subsidies, 143

good products pay for losers, 141

low-volume by high-volume, 143

of custom by standard, 129

Suggestions, DFM program, 275

Summary, DFM, 1

Supplier involvement, early, 38

Supplier selection

low-bidder problems, 126

total cost basis, 126

Suppliers designing parts, 111

Suppliers on design team, 38

Supply chain, minimizing costs, 134

Supply chain management, 62

design consideration, 16

simplifying with standardization, 75

Supply chain simplification, 62

Symmetry

designing parts, 229

guideline, 183

Taguchi methods, 198

robust design, 189

Tangling of parts, guideline, 191

Team, focus, 41

Team leader, 41

Team members, 38

Teams, 6

all present early, 45

early formation, 41

key to success, 41

Teams, design, 37

Teamwork

early participation, 45

success factors, 45

Technology, transitioning to new, 136

Tektronix

overhead costs half from parts, 76

part count reduction, 80

varying material overhead rates, 98

variable material overhead, 151

Test, ability to, 15

Test diagnostics, 176

Test effort, relationship to quality, 176

Test guidelines, 175

Test ports, 224

Test strategy, 175

diagnostics or process controls, 177

Testing

of sub-assemblies, 175

PC boards, 267

sub-assemblies, 167

with standard instruments, 176

Testing parts in product, 218

Thinking out of the box, 28

Thruput reduction, 60, 72

Time

design, 71

documentation, 71

misconceptions about, 4

Time-to-market

competitive advantage of, 19

design consideration, 19

enhancing profits, 19

improved with DFM, 10

improved with group technology, 70

improving with modular design, 70

improved with purchased parts, 106

most effective way to achieve, 6

reducing 40%, 51

Timers, 224

Timing errors, 233

Tolerances, 186

block or blanket, 189

excessive, 187

for automatic handling, 191

philosophy, 188

stack-up, 187

step functions, 186

strategy, 188

worst-case, 187

Tolerances on target, 200

Tolerances within spec, 199

Tool changing, 93

Tool commonality, 216

Tool standardization, 92

Tooling complexity, minimizing, 184

Tools

access, 165

do-it-right-the-first-time, 9

specifying common, 64

Total cost, 141

decision making, 122

focus in NPD, 122

minimizing thru standardization, 95

to avoid arbitrary decisions, 122

Total cost accounting, 141

implementing, 154

implementing approaches, 147

Total cost measurement, 141

value, understanding, 146

Total cost thinking, 147

Trades, learning, 33

Training, 282

Transition into production, 106

Unscheduled maintenance, 222

Updating guidelines, 288

Upgrade, ability to, 166

Upgrades

using modular design, 70

with modular design, 70

Upgrading, design consideration, 19

Uptime, 223

Utilization improvements, 72

Utilization of machine tools, 130

Value-added services, 65

Variety, handling proactively, 65

Vendor partner relationships, 101

Vendor reduction, 101

Vendors, designing parts, 111

Virtual manufacturing

how to compete with, 61

VLSI, 53

Voice of the customer, 47

Wall-Mart, and supply chain costs, 134

Warning devices, 225

Washers, use of, 170

Waste, elimination of, 59

Wave soldering, 257

Wear parts, 217

Wearout phase, 212

Web sales, and mass customization, 66

WIP inventory elimination, 60

WIP inventory reduction, 72

Womack, James P., 59

Work-in-Process inventory, 72

Working capital, 128

Worst case tolerances, 187

Write-offs of inventory

eliminating with BTO, 136

Wrong part, guidelines to avoid, 229

Wrong position, avoiding errors, 230

Zero defects, 202

Zero-based standardization, 81

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